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Nipple-Areolar Complex Reconstruction pp Cite as. The method by Yanaga successfully achieved NAC reconstruction with dermal-fat flaps and cartilage or artificial bone. An advantage of this method is that a base is formed by the dermis at the central portion of the two dermal-fat flaps, so the probability of retraction is greatly reduced. The authors also use a method of skin grafting from a proximal portion of the inner thigh for adaptation to the texture and color tone of the NAC. This method enables NAC reconstruction in one step. Skip to main content.
Areola, more generally, is a small circular area on the body with a different histology from the surrounding tissue , or other small circular areas such as an inflamed region of skin. The mature human female nipple has several small openings arranged radially around the tip of the nipple lactiferous ducts from which milk is released during lactation. Other small openings in the areola are sebaceous glands , known as Montgomery's glands. The areolae can range from pink to red to chocolate brown to dark brown or nearly black, but generally tend to be paler among people with lighter skin tones and darker among people with darker skin tones. A reason for the differing color may be to make the nipple area more visible to the infant. The size and shape of areolae and nipples are also highly variable, with those of women usually being larger than those of men and prepubescent girls. Human areolae are mostly circular in shape, but many women have large areolae that are noticeably elliptical.